Glossary
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Agenda
The agenda is a written fixed list of topics which is used at an event or a meeting.

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Analysis technique
Analysis techniques are techniques and methods of the qualitative and quantitative empirical social research like the interview, the observation and the questionnaire as well as the document analysis. They investigate the actual situation and are especially used for problem analysis. For the presentation of facts, opinions, and assessments, tables (presentation of work processes), matrices (contingency tables, e.g. functional diagram), graphical presentation techniques, e.g. flow chart and cause and effect diagram, can also be used.

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Beamer
The beamer (also called video beamer, video and digital projector) is a special projector, which projects data, e.g. from a computer, in an enlarged format to a projection surface.

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Bug
A bug is a fault in the programme execution of software. It mainly relates to a programming error within the corresponding script. The term dates from the time where computers were based on relays, which in fact had to be "debugged", as some insects (bugs) could render some relays inoperative, which then lead to malfunctions.

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Charge rate
Charge rates or transfer prices are valuations for an intra-corporate cost allocation, which are determined within the framework of a calculation. Especially at organisationally separated business sectors, which are responsible for their costs, work is done with charge rates.

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Controlling
Controlling is a management tool which ensures the control of operational, respectively project accompanying planning and measures by ongoing target-actual comparisons.

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Core competencies
Core competencies are the special capabilities or skills of a co-worker. They are the one pool of knowledge, experience and skills, which distinguish him for specific tasks.

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Cost and performance accounting
Cost and performance accounting is part of the internal accountancy, where costs and performances of a business are brought into relation. It is a break down of where in a business costs do arise. Cost and performance accounting is divided into the sections:
  • Cost accounting (Which costs do arise?)
  • Cost centre accounting (Where do costs arise?)
  • Cost unit accounting (How much does a certain product cost?)


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Cost bearer
A cost bearer is an object to which costs are allocated in the costs and performances accounting. Usually it concerns a particular article or product or a service. Cost bearer accounting determines the arisen production and prime costs and attributes them to the product and performance bearer, i.e. the cost bearer.

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Cost centres
Cost centres are the places where costs arise. They are organisational, functional or spatially defined parts of the business (departments, divisions etc.).

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Costs estimation
Under costs estimation one understands the attempt to determine the expected costs, the need of resources and the necessary working hours. Reliable conclusions with regard to the expected costs are indispensible for the preparation of a quotation and a profitability calculation. The resources requirements for each single work package are mainly quoted in person-days.

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Critical chain method
The critical chain method incorporates dependencies between processes and resources into the planning, in contrast to the critical path, which only considers dependencies between the processes.

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Critical path
Within the network planning technique the critical path defines the concatenation of those processes at whose temporal change the deadline of the network plan is moved. Within a network plan it is determined by the activity chain which in total comprises the longest duration. Activities, which lie on the critical path, determine the total project duration. All other activities can within the framework of their buffer time be time-shifted or extended, without changing the total project duration.

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Flipchart
The flipchart is a large paper pad whose sheets can be flipped over the top, and which is fastened to a stand.

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Functional and performance specifications
The functional and performance specifications document is used by the contractor to record how he will achieve the requested services, whereas in the requirements specification document primarily the specification of the product and the product structure plan are described by the client.

The extent of the functional and performance specifications document varies from a pure project structure plan with work packages (minimum) up to a complete and detailed project planning, which amongst others also includes schedules and resources plans.

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IEEE
The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) is a standardisation body for electrical and electronic processes. The IEEE consists of different work groups who strive for the standardisation of international applications.

http://www.ieee.com

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Information channel
In the transceiver communication model the term information channel is also introduced. The different possibilities of information transmission with the respective sense receptors as well as their nerve pathways are designated as information channels. It will often be differentiated between the information channels.
  • Auditory channel: Perception over the ear
  • Visual channel: Perception over the eye
  • Olfactory channel: Perception over the nose
  • Tactile channel: Perception over touch of the skin


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Information management
Information management is the optimal design of information events in business. It concerns the sum of all leadership tasks, which deal with information and communication within the organisation. The capture, forwarding, processing and storage of all necessary intra-organisational information are regarded as part of the information management.

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Instrument
Instruments of project management are specific methods like problem analysis, project structure plan, cost plan etc., which are to be deployed during the different phases of the project management and are realised by the use of different tools (e.g. spreadsheet programmes, database programmes or presentation programmes).

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Integration task
The integration task is a key function of the project leader. With integration the ability is meant:
  • To define playing rules
  • Aligning different interests into one target
  • To recognise conflicts and to offer solutions
  • To respond to co-workers


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Jour fixe
Jour Fixe (French: fixed day) is a firmly agreed meeting of a group of persons at a fixed deadline. It is important that these meetings are held at regular intervals. A Jour Fixe serves the intra-group coordination, planning and exchange of information. By long-term scheduling it is ensured that all participants (team members) can attend the meeting.

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Key questions
Key questions function like impulses to act and are supposed to replace instructions. They can assist to systematically plan and steer a course of discussion.

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Kick-off meeting
By kick-off meeting an opening or inaugural meeting is meant. This meeting serves the building of a joint (problem) understanding and team building.

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Leadership style
Leadership style refers to constant leadership behaviours of a leader towards his co-workers over an extended period. E.g. according to Kurt Lewin three styles are distinguished.
  • Authoritarian leadership style: The leader decides, gives instructions and controls and the co-worker executes these instructions.
  • Cooperative leadership style: Leader and co-worker jointly coordinate their approach in discussions.
  • Laisser-faire leadership style: (Let it run) The co-workers decide independently and the leader does not interfere.


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Lessons learnt
After completion of a project it is worthwhile to reflect on the positive as well as the negative experiences. Lessons learnt, thus: the lessons which have been learnt during the course of the project can help to learn from mistakes and to prevent them in future. Lessons learnt is a matter of a planned collection and documentation of positive but particularly also negative experience reports, to make them as well available to others.

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Line organisation
An enterprise with a line organisation is characterised by independent departments who only communicate with each other on the level of their superiors, as well by a strict hierarchy with firm decision-making structures.

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Magical triangle
The magical triangle of project management is the graphical presentation of the relations between costs, time and result or quality of a project. Thereby it should be communicated that target goal, expenses and duration of a project cannot be varied independently from each other. The relation between result and costs stands for profitability, the connection between result and time for effectiveness and between costs and time for productivity.

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Management cycle
The management cycle describes the three essential functions of (project) management, which accompany a project over the entire term as circle process of planning, organisation and control.

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Memo
A memo is a concise and temporary work text. Mostly it concerns a short note of a conversation or a meeting.

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Metaplan cards
Metaplan cards or action cards are used in the so called metaplan technique. This is a creativity and presentation technique at which the participants note their contributions on cards which then can be fixed and regrouped on screens by the use of needles.

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Milestone plan
Milestone planning is a type of time scheduling of a project. Milestones indicate the point in time at which part of a project is completed. The project process can be checked by the scheduled attainment of a milestone.

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Milestone-trend-analysis
The milestone-trend-analysis (MTA) is a controlling instrument for the monitoring of the project progress and investigates how and whether milestones shift during the course of the project.

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Mind map
Mind mapping is a creativity method for the structural collection of ideas. Characteristic is the visualisation of association chains in form of neuronal structures, starting from a centre at which the main term is fixed. Mind mapping can be used by a single person as well as within a group.

Mind mapping is a registered trademark. Mind maps are especially useful for the visualisation and structuring of processes and hitherto unstructured information.

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Moderator
A moderator leads and controls a discussion without himself actively exerting influence on the contents of the discussion. At team meetings it therefore is advisable to regularly pass on the role of moderator or to fill it externally by a person who is not involved in the project.

A moderator exerts influence on three communication levels:
  • Steering of the round of talks
  • Relationship level between all participants
  • Structuring of the substantive discussion


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MTA
MTA is the abbreviation of milestone-trend-analysis.

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Network plan techniques
Network plan technique is a possible form of scheduling - mostly computer-aided - which should include all procedures for the analysis, description, planning, control, monitoring of processes on the basis of the graph theory.

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Operational targets
Operational targets are, opposed to content or formal targets, intermediate targets, who serve the target achievement of further targets.

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Operative
The term operative is often used in project management and describes the actions or the work processes during a project, mostly using selected methodical procedures.

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Organisation
The project organisation includes all bodies (steering committee, team meetings, etc.), organisational arrangements (project handbook, operating agreements, etc.), as well as leadership and decision making structures (organigram of the project).

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Organisation, project specific
With project specific organisation the special type of deployment of resources and personnel within a project is meant here. As projects per definition are unique, they in each case demand different requirements, e.g. co-worker selection, role assignments, cooperation and report forms.

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Overhead projector
An overhead projector is a daylight projector for transparent templates (slides).

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Performance planning
The billable work performance of a co-worker per year is determined with the assistance of performance planning. In that way the performance planning serves the capacity planning and the hour costs determination.

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Personnel days
Personnel days indicate the number of personnel per day.

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Personnel months
Personnel months is a unit of measurement for a resources estimate and indicate the number of personnel per month.

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Pin board
A pin board is a board made from cork or similar material, to which notes can be pinned with thumb tacks. A variant is the metal pin board with small magnets for holding the notes.

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Planning
Planning in general is the theoretic anticipation of future reality. It is the process of the determination of tasks and targets of a project, the identification of partners and co-workers as well as the determination of the boundary conditions and activities, so that expected results can be achieved within a reasonable period.

Project planning is an essential function of project management and a component of the project management cycle.

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Planning instruments
Planning instruments of the project management during the planning phase, which serve the identification of the work packages, are:
  • Project structure plan
  • Project procedure plan
  • Resources plan
  • Costs plan
  • Quality plan


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Planning phase
The planning phase is the second phase of the project phases model, in which with the aid of certain planning instruments concrete and detailed project planning is done.

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Predecessor
At the preparation of process lists and within the network planning technique, processes are structured in logical dependencies. A predecessor is a process which immediately precedes another process and influences it.

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Problem analysis
Problem analysis is the first step of project processing and takes place in the first phase of project implementation. The existing problem is analysed with its framework conditions, and a possible project resulting there from will be demarcated from other projects.

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Process list
In the process list all measures which are necessary to achieve the project target are listed in detail. It serves to determine all necessary activities in a project.

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Project application
The project application is content wise in line with the project order. A project application as a rule, however, refers to an internal project. A department, division or a work group applies to a decision making authority within the same company, respectively the same organisation. The project application is the result of the project definition phase.

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Project control
Project control, which belongs as a fixed component of project management to the tasks of the project leader, is the targeted steering of the course of the project. It is the sum total of the measures which aid to harmonise the actual course of the project with the original planning.

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Project controlling
Project controlling is a project control tool and enables the monitoring of project processes with the aid of certain business methods. It serves at deviations of targets to timely initiate correcting measures. Project controlling is a task of project management.

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Project coordinator
Project coordination is one of the fundamental tasks of a project leader. Here the course of the project is pursued in respect of terms, personnel and costs, and appropriate measures are planned. In the stricter sense the project coordinator largely takes over the tasks of a project leader or project manager, however without having their authority. A project coordinator is mostly employed in an organisation with a pure line organisation, which does not accept leader positions besides the line.

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Project costs
The project costs are those costs, which arise through the sum of costs of the resources consumption of all work packages and are entered into the costs planning of a project. This planning of project costs pursues the following targets:
  • Determination of the overall costs of a project
  • Basis of the quotation costing
  • Instrument of project controlling


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Project culture
Project culture is the sum of joint values, norms, perspectives, behaviours and manners, which prevail in a project. The following features are furthermore included in the project culture:
  • Willingness to cooperate between persons
  • Communication skills
  • Appreciation of project co-workers amongst themselves
  • Conflict skills, respectively conflict management of the project members

Project culture could be referred to as the sum total of behaviours influenced by knowledge, experience and tradition of the project members and their general assessment by the project environment.

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Project definition phase
The project definition phase is the first phase of the project phases model, during which the project is prepared. The systematic deployment of the following instruments assists in a successful project start:
  • Problem analysis
  • Decision to implement the project
  • Clarification of project targets
  • Project order
  • Project organisation
  • Kick-off meeting


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Project documentation
The project documentation, component of the project information system, is the sum of all documents created during the course of a project. They can be distinguished between process documentation and product documentation.

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Project feature
Projects stand out from each other with respect to daily occurring work in the line by certain features. Because of these project features projects can be differentiated from each other by:
  • Content
  • Uniqueness
  • Client
  • Range
  • Industry


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Project framework organisation
The project framework organisation is about cooperation between project and line organisation. Possible forms of the project framework organisation are:
  • Pure project organisation
  • Influence project organisation
  • Matrix project organisation

To prevent conflicts between project and line organisations, the roles, the responsibilities and competences of the participants are already bindingly determined before the start of the project with the aid of the project framework organisation.

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Project handbook
The project handbook is the composition of planning documents of a project. The project handbook should contain the composition of information and arrangements, which should apply to the planning and implementation of a certain project.

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Project instance
Project instances are the different hierarchy levels of a project. A project does exist at least of the following project instances:
  • Client (project initiator)
  • Project leader
  • Project team


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Project management staff
Project management staff is a super ordinate coordination committee.

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Project order
The project order is a legally binding order to implement a project. The project order follows the project definition phase, contains project targets and leads to the actual project start. At larger projects the project order also contains the requirements specification document.

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Project phase
Projects are structured in dependence of the respective model into defined partial sections. Often the following phases are distinguished:
  • Project definition
  • Project planning
  • Project implementation
  • Project completion

A project phase can be described as a temporal section of a project process, which is factually separated from other sections.

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Project phases model
The project phases model according to Beiderwieden divides projects into the phases:
  • Definition
  • Planning
  • Implementation
  • Completion


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Project plan
The project plan respectively project planning is the sum total of all plans contained in the project, which constitute the basis for project steering and project controlling. At least part of this are:
  • Project structure plan
  • Project procedure plan
  • Resources plan
  • Costs plan


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Project specific organisation
With project specific organisation is meant the special type of the deployment of resources and personnel of a project. As projects per definition are unique, they mostly have different demands as e.g. in respect of co-workers choice, role assignments, cooperation and report forms.

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Project structure
A project can be structured into different reference levels, as e.g.:
  • Structure
  • Procedure
  • Objects
  • Functions
  • Processes


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Project structure plan
The project structure plan structures the project hierarchically into sections, as a rule in terms of work packages. These are further split into tasks and activities.

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Project target
Project targets are specified requirements of the project, as they are fixed in the project application or the requirements specification document. This includes intermediate targets, which are pursued during the course of the project and which are mostly formulated as milestones. At the relevant target formulation one should take care,
  • that project targets are formulated clearly and understandable,
  • that they are achievable with the available resources,
  • that possible solutions are not predetermined so that new and creative solutions are not prevented.


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Project target sheet
The project target sheet is part of the project documentation. This is a standardised template on which project targets are fixed differentiated in terms of rough, sub and intermediate targets. Since both the client and the project leader sign the project target sheet, the project targets receive a high binding and verifiability.

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Project team
The project team consists of the persons who are operatively involved in the project. The project team is composed at the beginning of the project. This is the task of the project leader. As a rule the members of the project team are subordinated to the project leader during the duration of the project and should possess technical and project methodical knowledge, which complements each other mutually.

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Project work
Project work is the implementation and execution of work packages arising in the project. Project work takes place parallel and simultaneously with the project management.

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Quality
The quality of a product, respectively service is the result of a comparison between quality requirements (quality criteria) of the product respectively the service and the actual nature or expression (quality characteristics).

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Quality assurance measures
Quality assurance measures include status reports, tests and reviews. They should ensure the defined quality of a product or service.

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Quality criteria
Quality criteria are the quality requirements attached to the product or service. They are recorded in the quality plan.

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Quality features
The quality features of a product or service are the verifiable states, which comply with the quality requirements. Quality features are recorded in the quality plan.

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Reflexion phase
In the reflexion phase a retrospective learning process takes place through reflexion and discussion.

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Responsibility
Responsibility refers to the aspects task, authority and accountability. Only who has all necessary authorities which are necessary for the solution of a task, can accept responsibility for the task solution.

With respect to project work one differentiates between four different areas of responsibility:
  • Management responsibility
  • Advice responsibility
  • Implementation responsibility
  • Approval responsibility


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Return on investment
The return on investment or ROI represents a yield code for return on capital. The ROI permits to determine the yield on the invested capital as well as the payback period.

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Review
Reviews are methods with the aid of which errors can be identified and violations of the specifications, standards and plans be revealed. In this way the development process or course of the project can be improved and corrected.

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Review team
The review team is the group of persons who are involved at the respective reviews.

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Schedule
The schedule is the graphic presentation of the duration of the individual work packages within a project, e.g. in the form of bar charts or network diagrams. Starting time and ending time for all activities are depicted on the schedule as well as the buffer zones indicated. The schedule can be created with a forward calculation based on the project start or with a backward calculation based on the project end.

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Shop
A shop, more specifically E-Shop or Online-Shop, provides merchandise for sale through the internet. The purchaser chooses the product and puts it into the electronic cart. A shop is realised by means of a special software which contains a cart functionality.

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Soft skills
Soft skills describe the ability and the knowledge of a person how to deal with people and decisions.

Parts of soft skills are e.g. abilities, respectively characteristics like:
  • Communication behaviour
  • Team skills
  • Motivation skills
  • Interpersonal skills
  • Creativity
  • Persuasiveness
  • Ability to make decisions


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Steering
Project steering is one of the main tasks of the project leader and mainly means to implement the project plan as accurate as possible. Project steering therefore is part of project controlling. Steering always refers to a concrete target, which must be achieved. Project steering builds on information of project planning and makes decisions, coordinates the cooperation of the project participants and initiates measures.

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Steering committee
The steering committee is the top coordinating body of a large project organisation mostly authorised to give instructions. It exists during the duration of the project.

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Structure principles
The project structure plan can be structured according to objects and items as well as according to activities or functions. Particularly at technical projects a structure according to objects is often chosen. A function-orientated project structure plan clarifies, which functional areas are entrusted with what tasks, and allows a simple formation of work packages. In practice often a mixed form of both is chosen.

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Subprojects
Projects are often structured into subprojects in order to ensure a better project management. When structuring subprojects, care is to be given to a definition of interfaces as mostly mutual dependencies exist between the subprojects.

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Successor
At the preparation of process lists and within the network technique processes are structured into logic dependencies. Thereby a successor is a process which immediately follows another process and which was influenced by the previous process.

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Target-actual comparison
Target-actual comparison is a possible way of project controlling. Hereby the deviations of the actual values (e.g. actual costs, actual working hours, actual volume of work etc.) of the respective target values are determined at a certain point in time.

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Target components
Project targets can in principal be structured into the following three target components:
  • Task goals
  • Costs targets
  • Schedule targets


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Target setting
Target setting is the process of joint target definition by the project members. At target setting it must be ensured,
  • that targets are formulated clearly and not be interpretable.
  • that they are operationable (verifiable).
  • that they are positively formulated and achievable and not just formulated as avoidance targets.

Above that targets must be formulated solution neutral, so that no solutions are excluded, which prove to be better in later specification phases.

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Tasks
Tasks are the smallest work units within a project. The project leader mainly has to deal with controlling, planning and organisational tasks.

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Time management
Time management is systematic and disciplined planning of the available time. The aim of time management is to optimally utilise the available time. In connection with project work the following methods are helpful:
  • Mandatory setting of working hours for certain tasks
  • Planning of sufficient buffer zones
  • Project related time sheets


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Tool
Tools of project management are techniques or software tools with the aid of which the instruments, respectively the methods of project management can be realised, as e.g. table calculation, word processing, presentation and database programmes.

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Types of costs
By types of costs the goods and service consumption of a business in the creation of services is meant. Types of costs are grouped by factors of production used in respect of personnel costs, material costs and imputed costs.

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Types of project costs
Types of project costs are understood to be the consumption of goods and services of the project. The types of costs accounting assists to give information in respect of the costs structure of a project. For this at first costs centres for the project must be set up.

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Visualisation
To visualise issues means to pictorially present them with computer assisted or classical tools. It is often true: "A picture tells more than 1,000 words".

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Walk-Through
Walk-through is a proven practice for quality assurance of software products. Test persons test the function and performance ability of software products based on predefined tasks or use cases. This practice is particularly required for internet offers (e.g. Online-Shop) as many errors do not occur at a local test but only at certain browsers, respectively browser configurations.

The simple acceptance test of products by customers is also called Walk-through.

Above that the term Walk-through is also used for the presentation of important key data of projects towards the client or the business management.

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Work packages
The measures and activities listed in the process list are summarised in work packages and form a self-contained process within a project. These work packages are assigned to a responsible leader and can be controlled separately.

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